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Приветствую Вас, Гость · RSS 17.12.2017, 18:27

Главная » Статьи » Мои статьи

Eco Sustainable Architecture - part 2
 
Eco Sustainable Architecture of the Future:
Large-Span Translucent Buildings and Structures


part 2 
to return to part 1 http://lstps.3dn.ru/  


LSTPS main benefits and results expected from the project

continuation of the text  


2. The greater is the LSTPS interior volume, the more feasible it is to create a stable and balanced system of crucial structural elements and to maintain the performance parameters ensuring comfortable and secure surroundings of human activity. Engineering systems (for example, HVAC air recovery systems, etc.) are known to be considerably more efficient in large premises, because they are less expensive to make and are more efficient in operation (in terms of space efficiency measured per square meter of usable area). An extensive LSTPS roof area makes it possible to collect rainwater for non-drinking water purposes, which will drastically reduce potable water consumption. A large difference in height between the levels in a large translucent structure will efficiently ventilate the LSTPS interior, bringing in a natural draft effect which draws air through the structure. Moreover, the warm air will create a buoyancy effect (following the Archimedes’ principle), which will, to some extent, reduce weight loads on the bases of supporting buildings. It is also important that being inside large spaces of atria (which can enclose over one million cubic meters), the occupants will not feel discomfort caused by small rooms.

3. When built in warm climate conditions, the LSTPS translucent roof elements can be partially replaced by solar batteries, which not only can provide required energy inputs but can also create shaded spaces, saving considerable energy supplies needed for air conditioning. In this case, resorting to special shading devices, light-reflectors, refractors, and other instruments and equipment installed on the translucent roof, a comfortable environment inside LSTP structures can be created with the use of the automatic control of solar energy penetrating the translucent structure. With the translucent roof installed at a certain height over the ground, the roof and the equipment will be nearly invisible for the occupants of the structure, owing to such light phenomena as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference.
 

4. In the regions of the Extreme North and Siberia, LSTP structures can provide people (most importantly, children) with shelters of year-round use, protecting them from extremely low temperatures in winter and blood-sucking insects in summer. To provide protection against snowdrifts, special simply-designed snow-removal devices have been made along with now widely-used de-icing systems. LSTPS construction offers great energy efficiency opportunities that include the so-called low-potential heat sources, the measures to prevent uncontrolled heat loss through the translucent structure and to exclude unsupervised actions of people adversely affecting its heat efficiency. Realizing the LSTPS concept in the regions of the Extreme North and Siberia will help transform our cities into lush greenery oases of comfortable climate, blooming inside despite the storms and frosts outside, thus forming an attractive model for the territorial development of otherwise unpopulated regions in the severe climate conditions. Translucent multilayer cable roof systems can be successfully used for covering sports stadiums, which will only benefit from this; moreover, the translucent roofs can be made retractable.

  

5. Sick and tired of gas-guzzling cars, the LSTPS occupants will only welcome a car-free space, where transportation can be provided by environmentally-friendly vehicles, such as mini electric cars, bicycles, high-speed walkways, travelators, incline elevators, and other indoor transportation systems. Conventional environment-unfriendly vehicles for outdoor transportation will be parked in carports and parking lots, preferably, underground in the LSTPS support contour buildings; this will improve the environmental conditions of courtyard space. The LSTPS atria will certainly impart appeal and enjoyment to our backyards and courts, transforming them into a social space of many attractions. Today, the public spaces adjacent to residential apartment buildings are mostly dilapidated, filthy, and crammed with cars, which makes them neither favorable for friendly talks with neighbors, nor suitable as a playground for children, nor enjoyable for outdoor sporting activities. It is therefore not surprising that most of the residents prefer spending their free time away from the inhospitable areas of their courtyards. 

 

6. A growing demand for LSTP structures will inevitably result in motivated advancement of the construction-related science in the direction of: advanced materials and technologies; energy efficient structures providing full independence from outside energy supplies; realization of high-technology devices capable of fully automated control and maintenance of all LSTPS engineering systems, depending on external and internal conditions; – which will integrally constitute the architectural structures being rightfully called "intelligent buildings”.

 

 

7. Supported with the development of weather control technologies, it will be not impossible in future to artificially create in the LSTPS interior the favorable weather conditions:
  directed temperature fluctuations during the day, desirable illumination modes, breeze-simulating air conditions, artificial rains according to a schedule, fragrances and natural sounds of any choice, etc.

 

8. LSTPS construction, by many criteria, optimally fits the mold of a green building approach and will promote not only the quality enhancement of construction projects but also the best support of environmental protection.

LSTPS construction will help to achieve the following important goals of the sustainable development and green standard requirements (e.g., LEED, BREEAM, DGWB):

  • To reduce consumption of energy and non-renewable materials and resources;
  • To minimize unfavorable impacts on natural ecosystems;
  • To ensure a comfortable human environment;
  • To produce new energy-efficient and environmentally-preferable products, creating new jobs in industry and maintenance sectors; and
  • To shape social needs for acquiring new knowledge and creating new technologies in the field of renewable energy sources.

 

9. In future, new eco-cities are believed to be substantially composed of maximally autonomous LSTP structures (sized as 150 х 150 m – 1,000 х 2,000 m and larger), built closely one to another. Such translucent structures will be built in the landscape of natural environment and will be connected with one another and with other eco-cities by means of the state-of-the-art transportation links. It is very likely that, providing for better efficiency in serving rapid transit needs, such structures will not only make many eco-citizens stop using individual vehicles but also improve walkability of the urban areas, totally avoiding dangerous intersections with cars.

 

10. Under their translucent roof, LSTP structures can accommodate multipurpose facilities of real estate: residential areas; nursery and daycare facilities; educational, business and scientific centers; shopping malls; sports complexes; and other premises and facilities. Already now, LSTP structures, built beyond the range of large urban complexes, could be made attractive for successful and economically active part of the urban population, thus substantially improving the now overcrowded living and traffic conditions of megalopolises.  It has to be sadly admitted, however, that modern architecture not only appears to have little concern about it, but, on the contrary, seems to have an intention to further increase the crowdedness of already overpopulated areas, judging from, at times, thoughtless projects of high-rise building construction or growing demands for overcrowded city spaces in urban development plans.

 

 

Conclusion

Therefore, actualizing the idea of large-scale construction of durable translucent shell-covered eco-spaces will, undoubtedly, result in improved quality of construction projects combined with better environmental protection and sustainably managed ecosystems. Not only can this idea bring about new promising opportunities for improving comfort and enhancing security of human living; with the lapse of time, it will also considerably strengthen environmental friendliness, enhance energy efficiency, and improve liveability of the existing cities. This is a new architecture! Naturally, we cannot readily appreciate its great importance and graceful simplicity, nor can we fully grasp the beneficial features and advantages of new living. However, the proposed concept is not meant to be represented as an abstract theory or a lofty fantasy depicting some obscure and distant future; rather, it offers a set of reasonable and feasible solutions the modern architecture can resort to on its pathway towards better prospects of the reality.

    


References:

  1. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, de Architectura in English translation by Joseph Gwilt (1826).
  2. L. G. Dmitriev and A. V. Kasilov: "Vantovye Pokrytia” (Cable Roofs), Kiev, 1974.
  3. A. N. Zverev: "Bol’sheproletnye konstruktsii pokrytii obshchestvennykh i promyshlennykh zdanii” (Large-span roof structures for public and industrial buildings), SPb GASU, 1998.
  4. N. M. Kirsanov: "Visyachie i vantovye konstruktsii” (Suspended and cable structures), Stroiizdat, 1981.
  5. V. A. Smirnov: "Visychie mosty bol’shikh proletov” (Cable-stayed bridges suspended over large spans), Vysshaya Shkola, 1970.
  6. http://ais.by/story/3512 - "Cable roof over multifunctional athletic arena” (Arkhitektura i stroitelstvo (Architecture and Construction) V. 11, 2009, Minsk).
  7. Eurasian patent No. 016435,  Protection Structure Having a large-Span Translucent Roof.
  8. http://blog.dp.ru/post/3969/ - "Large-span translucent protection structures: Way to a comfortable and secure living (Delovoi Peterburg (Business Petersburg), SPb, 2012).  
  9. http://blog.dp.ru/post/4003/ - Atria as the basis for urban architecture of the future for Russia. Atrium structures and buildings (Business Petersburg website), SPb, 2012.
  10. http://www.breeam.org/ - BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM).
  11. http://www.un.org/ru/development/sustainable/csd.shtml - UN and Sustainable Development.
  12. http://www.leed.net/ - Leadership and Environmental Design certification program website.
  13. Proceedings of Agenda 21: UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro, 1992.

 

Project Summary

Purpose
Construction of translucent structures with the purpose of creating comfortable and safe internal areas of large coverage, providing long-term protection of people, buildings and adjacent territories from unfavorable effects of the environment.

 

1.      Product/Service (Expected Profits).

Sale and/or lease of large-span translucent roof-covered commercial property of various functionality.

2.      Advantages over Similar Products/Services and Competition

Large-span translucent roof-covered eco-buildings can be of various shape and size; they are considerably less expensive in construction and more cost and energy efficient in operation, at the same time, being more durable and having simpler design and layout features. There are many other advantages as well. No competition known as of today: the closest prior art developments are inferior in terms of all basic parameters.

3.      Realization Stage (Commercial Capabilities)

The project is ready for realization. The principle technologies, equipment, materials and skilled personnel are available in the construction market; however, some additional calculations and design modifications are required to produce certain units and parts; and certain innovative systems and materials also need to be introduced.

4.      Estimated economic indicators including investments required,  payback period and profits

The project can be a success commercially, provided that it has a well-developed action plan and, especially, a wisely planned marketing strategy. With marketing activities adequately and professionally organized, the project can reach a break-even (or make a profit) before the construction starts. Project parameters are crucial for the success, especially the project location and scope. For instance, a reasonably sized, 200-m high, glazed pyramid structure will cover an area of 9.0 ha and at least 320 thousand square meters of commercial premises in multistoried buildings. Estimated construction budget is 400 – 450 million US dollars; lead time estimate is 4 – 5 years.

 

5.     Intellectual property protection:

  -  Eurasian patent No. 016435 "Protection Structure Having a large-Span Translucent Roof”

http://www.eapatis.com/ruSearch/ms.exeData/EAPO/eapo2012/PDF/016435.pdf;

  -  PCT expanded patent application filed; a number of know-how developed.

 

6.     Supplementary Information:
 
http://blog.dp.ru/post/4699/ ;   s.alekseev3@gmail.com




* * *

    go to part 1  -   http://lstps.3dn.ru/  


Translated by
N. Pomortseva © 2013






Figure captions:

Fig. 1: A 200 m-high translucent pyramid structure

Fig. 2: Khan Shatyr Entertainment Center in the city of Astana, Kazakhstan

Figs. 3-7: Tropical Islands park in Germany

Figs. 8-12: Atria spaces in the Gaylord Hotels in the United States of America

Fig. 13: A sketch illustrating a 200 m-high pyramid protection structure

Fig. 14: A translucent roof-covered dome-shaped structure

Figs 14-18: Atria spaces in the Gaylord Hotels in the United States of America

Fig. 19: A translucent roof-covered dome-shaped structure

Fig. 20: Atrium in one of the hotel in Saint Petersburg  

Fig. 21: A 200 m-high translucent pyramid structure





Translated by N. Pomortseva © 2013


.


Источник: http://blog.dp.ru/post/4699/
Категория: Мои статьи | Добавил: Sergey_Pavlovich (19.02.2013) | Автор: Sergey Alekseev E W
Просмотров: 2640 | Комментарии: 2 | Теги: eco, architecture, LSTPS, Translucent, Large-Span, Buildings, BREEAM, LEED, DGWB, Sustainable | Рейтинг: 0.0/0
Всего комментариев: 2
1
2  
Architecture for ХХI century: Large-span Translucent Buildings - http://blog.dp.ru/post/5274/

The article proposes to consider the idea of creating a rational coatings for large spans (including translucent coverings) and is about how we can bring a bit useful "green" of variety for monotonous Architecture our towns - to build a large and comfortable public spaces and to expand the convenient conditions environment for life of people in the big city
Production of energy from renewable sources - this is fine, but the architecture itself can and should reduce the need for electricity. And these objects in a short time may well achieve this. First of all, due to a significant decline in the total area of the building envelopes for a large complex of buildings, which will covered with a transparent roof. And secondly, through use of the clever modern life-support systems of the buildings

1  
A new type of suspension bridge with a large span - http://blog.dp.ru/post/5191/
 I think that, this type of rope bridges could be called a "green bridge" judging by the favorable opportunities in the construction of such a bridge - substantial reducing the amount of materials (cement and reinforcing steel), which are now being spent at the device numerous concrete supports and pylons for modern large-span bridges. And after all, the production of cement and steel production - are not only energy intensive, but also extremely environmentally unfriendly.
Unfortunately, depth of the space underneath the bridge should be at least 10 % of the span length of the bridge. Therefore, such bridges more are suitable for construction of roads in the mountains, for overcoming the mountain valleys and gorges. And today in the world for such bridges are enough suitable places.

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